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Embryonic Stem Cell Research And Cloning Legislation

There are several types of embryonic stem cell research and cloning legislation

1. Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2007. This bill, vetoed twice by President Bush, would allow federal funding for "research that utilizes human embryonic stem cells in accordance with this section (regardless of the date on which the stem cells were derived from a human embryo) ."  The Bush policy allows federal funding for embryonic research for embryonic stem cell lines in existence at August 9, 2001at 9PM.  It prohibits funding of embryonic stem cell lines using embryonic stem cell procured from embryos after this date.  

 

2. Human Cloning Ban and Stem Cell Research Protection Act of 2002.  A bill "to ban human cloning while protecting stem cell research."  This bill defines cloning this way: "`human cloning' means asexual human reproduction by implanting or attempting to implant the product of nuclear transplantation into a woman's uterus or a substitute for a woman's uterus."  It defines cloning as the implantation or transfer of the clone (product of nuclear transplantation) into a uterus instead of the creation of the cloned embryo (product of nuclear transplantation. 

 

What is "nuclear transplantation?"  It's a technical term meant to obfuscate cloning and to confuse the listener.  This is what Nevada LIFE calls "political science."  Nuclear transfer or somatic cell nuclear transfer happens when the nucleus of a body cell is transferred into an unfertilized egg that has been emptied of its contents.  An electrical charge is applied and a new clone is created.  See www.cloninginformation.org/images/howcloningworks.pdf for an image and diagram from David Prentice, PhD, Family Research Council, Georgetown University Medical School. 

 

3. The Human Cloning Prohibition Act 0f 2007 A bill to prohibit human cloning.  The term "`human cloning' means human asexual reproduction, accomplished by introducing nuclear material from one or more human somatic cells into a fertilized or unfertilized oocyte whose nuclear material has been removed or inactivated so as to produce a living organism (at any stage of development) that is genetically virtually identical to an existing or previously existing human organism."  This bill defines cloning as occurring when the human clone comes into existence, not when he or she is implanted in or transferred to a uterus.

4. Fetus Farming Protection Act of 2006, "A bill to to prohibit the solicitation or acceptance of tissue from fetuses gestated for research purposes, and for other purposes."  This makes it illegal to grow fetuses for research and other purposes. 

5. The Alternative Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies Enhancement Act.  This is a bill "To derive human pluripotent stem cell lines using techniques that do not knowingly harm embryos."  Embryonic stem cells are said to be "pluripotent."  That is, they can become any kind of cell.  This is an attempt to get embryonic stem cells without harming embryos.  See our Nevada Lifes Congressional Briefing Embryonic Stem Cell Research and HR 810/S471, Why The Senate Should Oppose S 471 And Support President Bush's Embryonic Stem Cell Research Funding Policy section 8b Embryonic Stem Cell Alternatives.   This briefing was created in 2005.  There are newer suggestions not listed there.  The bill passed in the Senate in 2006 and was rejected by the House.  President Bush has funded this research by executive order.

6. New Jersey’s “Anti-Cloning Law” (S. 1909, law found at L.2003,c.203,s.3).  This bill was called a human cloning ban.  The bill synopsis says it "Permits human stem cell research in New Jersey."  This bill, now law in New Jersey, legislates a third definition of cloning.  "As used in this section, 'cloning of a human being' means the replication of a human individual by cultivating a cell with genetic material through the egg, embryo, fetal and newborn stages into a new human individual."  This means that it would be legal to create a human clone, implant him or her in a uterus, gestate the clone and as long as the clone is not born or does not survive until the new human individual emerges, using the "cadeveric tissue" for research and transplantation purposes is acceptable.  The Fetus Farming Protection Act should supersede this state statute.

   

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